Hyperpigmentation is categorised by excessive pigmented areas of skin, where cells known as melanocytes produce an excessive amount of melanin, leaving the skin darker in appearance and uneven in tone.
There are many causes of hyperpigmentation issues including genetics, acne, trauma, hormones, UV, inflammation and medication.
There are different types of pigmentation:
- Solar lentigo or age spot are caused by excessive and regular sun exposure.
- Melasma is sometimes referred to as the ‘mask of pregnancy’ and appears as patches of pigmentation.
- Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH). This occurs following acne or trauma to the skin resulting in excess melanin production caused by inflammation and UV exposure. Other factors may cause PIH such as topical medications that sensitise the skin to sunlight.
- Ephiledes or freckles are genetic they often become more apparent after exposure to sunlight.